Keeping a science journal is one of the most important things you can do as an aspiring scientist. A journal is a place where you can document and analyze your observations, experiments, and findings after each test or experiment. If you keep records of your experiments, observations, and processes along with relevant images and diagrams in a science journal, it will be much easier to remember what exactly you did whenever you want to look up information about a specific experiment.
There are several different types of journals for scientists; some are tailored specifically as research journals that accept only original research articles from academics on specific subjects. Other scientific journal article types include book reviews, letters to the editor, and general articles on scientific topics. While they may differ in their intended audience and scope, all scientific journals have 5 main sections that every good one needs to have:
Title and author information
The first thing in any journal article is the title page and author information. This will usually be found on the first page of the journal article, and it will contain the title of the article, the author’s names and affiliations, and information about the source and publication date of the article. The title of the article should be clear, concise, and reflect the subject matter of the article. It should be easy for both the author and the reader to understand what the article is about from just the title.
The title of the article is also typically used for reference purposes for citations as well. The author information will vary slightly between different journal article types, but it will usually consist of the author’s name, address, and contact information, as well as the number of pages in the article and if it has been previously published.
Abstract or executive summary
The abstract is generally a summary that appears at the beginning of an article that lets the reader know what the article is about and what they can expect to learn by reading it in its entirety. The abstract can also be referred to as an “executive summary” or “abstract” depending on the journal’s preferred terminology. It is usually written in the past tense and should be concise and to the point. The main purpose of the abstract is to inform the reader about the topic of the article.
It should be short enough that it can be read in one sitting. It can be anywhere from a few paragraphs to one full page long, but the shorter it is, the more effective it will be. The better an abstract is written, the more attention it will draw from potential readers. Since the abstract is the first thing that people read when looking at a journal article, it needs to be good enough to catch their attention and make them want to read the rest of the article.
The introduction is meant to provide the reader with an overview of the topic of the article. It should give the reader a general idea of what the article is about, what the author’s purpose is in writing the article, and why the topic that is being discussed is important. The introduction is usually the shortest section in the journal article, one or two paragraphs long. The author should make sure to choose their wording carefully, as the introduction is what will draw the reader in and make them want to read more.
The introduction also needs to inform the reader about what the article is about and what the author is trying to prove by writing it. The introduction should be interesting enough that the reader will want to continue reading the article. It should also inform the reader about what they can expect to learn by reading the article.
The background information section is usually found in journal articles that have a specific focus or topic. Its purpose is to inform the reader about the topic in a general sense before diving into the specifics of the article. The background information section should be a few paragraphs long and should inform the reader about the general topic that is being discussed in the article. It should discuss the history of the topic, major discoveries or developments that have occurred, and any current research that is being conducted on the topic.
The methods used section is found only in experimental journal articles. It is where the author will discuss the methods that were used in the experiment and how exactly it was conducted. The methods used section can also be used as an area to discuss things like experimental design, the use of controls, what equipment was used in the experiment, etc.
It can also be used to discuss any previous research conducted on the topic before going into the experiment that is being reported in the journal article in question. The methods used section needs to be specific enough to inform the reader on exactly how the experiment was conducted. It also needs to be detailed enough that another scientist could replicate the experiment if they were following exactly to the letter.
Results and observations
The results and observations section are where the author will discuss the results of the experiment that was conducted. The results and observations section is usually the longest section of an experimental journal article. The author needs to make sure to be as specific as possible when discussing the results. They need to discuss the results in a way that will inform the reader exactly what happened in the experiment.
The results and observations section also needs to be written in a way that is interesting enough that it will keep the reader reading. It also needs to be written in a way that will inform the reader about what exactly happened in the experiment so that they know exactly what the author is trying to prove by writing the article. The results section is also where the author will discuss the observed results of an experiment. The author will discuss the data that was collected, how it was analyzed, and what conclusions were drawn from the study.
This is where the author will report on any statistical analysis that was performed on the data as well as any conclusions drawn from it. The results section should be detailed enough that another scientist could replicate the experiment if they were following exactly to the letter.
The discussion section is where the author will discuss their findings based on the results of the experiment. The discussion section is usually separated into two different parts: the introduction and the conclusion. The introduction is where the author will discuss their findings but in more general terms. The conclusion is where the author will discuss their findings in terms of what the results mean in the context of the article as a whole.
The discussion section is where the author will discuss how the results of the experiment fit into the context of the article as a whole. It is where the author will discuss what their findings mean in the context of the article. The discussion section also needs to draw the reader’s attention to the fact that the results of the experiment support the author’s hypothesis. The discussion section is also where a researcher will discuss what their findings are, how they can be used to improve society in some way, and any future research directions for further study on a topic.
This is also one of two sections in which authors can make predictions about possible outcomes of their work (the other being hypothesis). The discussion section should be detailed enough that another scientist could replicate the experiment if they were following exactly to the letter.
Areas of Future Research
The areas of future research section are where the author will discuss areas that could be researched further based on the results of the experiment. The areas of future research section are usually found in the conclusion of an article. It is usually only a few sentences long. Sometimes, it is combined with the areas of application section if the author is discussing possible applications of the experiment’s findings.
The areas of future research section can also be used to discuss areas that could be researched further to verify the results of the experiment. It is usually best to avoid making any suggestions or recommendations in the areas of future research section.
The conclusion is where the author will discuss the overall findings of their experiment. The conclusion is usually a one- to the two-sentence conclusion that ties together everything that the author has discussed in their article. It needs to reflect what the author has discussed in the article about their experiment and findings. The conclusion needs to be short and concise enough that it can be read in one sitting. It also needs to be written in a way that will wrap up the entire article and make the reader feel like they have learned something from reading it.